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Climate Change & Energy

Climate change is real and man-made. It will come as a big surprise that climate change from 1900 to 2025 has mostly been a net benefit, rising to increase welfare about 1.5% GDP per year.

Summaries and download links to all our research papers on Climate Change below.

Publications

Assessment Paper

A Scorecard for Humanity: Climate Change

An Assessment Paper on climate change was written by Richard S.J. Tol and released as a chapter in How Much Have Global Problems Cost the World?

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Assessment Paper

A Scorecard for Humanity: Ecosystems & Biodiversity

An Assessment Paper on ecosystems and biodiversity was written by Anil Markandya and Aline Chiabai and released as a chapter in How Much Have Global Problems Cost the World?

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Assessment Paper

CC12: Climate Change Adaptation

Assessment Papers on Climate Change have been written by Francesco Bosello, Carlo Carraro and Enrica de Cian (Adaptation), J. Eric Bickel and Lee Lane (Climate Engineering), Richard S. J.

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Assessment Paper

CC12 Climate Change: Climate Engineering

Assessment Papers on Climate Change have been written by Francesco Bosello, Carlo Carraro and Enrica de Cian (Adaptation), J. Eric Bickel and Lee Lane (Climate Engineering), Richard S. J.

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Assessment Paper

CC12 Climate Change: Emission Abatement

Assessment Papers on Climate Change have been written by Francesco Bosello, Carlo Carraro and Enrica de Cian (Adaptation), J. Eric Bickel and Lee Lane (Climate Engineering), Richard S. J.

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Assessment Paper

CC12 Climate Change: Technology-led Mitigation

Assessment Papers on Climate Change have been written by Francesco Bosello, Carlo Carraro and Enrica de Cian (Adaptation), J. Eric Bickel and Lee Lane (Climate Engineering), Richard S. J.

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Perspective Paper

CC12: Climate Change Perspective 1

Challenge Papers on Climate Change have been written by Francesco Bosello, Carlo Carraro and Enrica de Cian (Adaptation), J. Eric Bickel and Lee Lane (Climate Engineering), Richard S. J.

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Perspective Paper

CC12: Climate Change Perspective 2

Challenge Papers on Climate Change have been written by Francesco Bosello, Carlo Carraro and Enrica de Cian (Adaptation), J. Eric Bickel and Lee Lane (Climate Engineering), Richard S. J.

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Assessment Paper

CC08: Global Warming

An Assessment Paper on Global Warming was prepared for the 2008 Copenhagen Consensus by Gary W. Yohe, Richard S.J. Tol, Richard G. Richels, and Geoffrey J. Blanford.

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Perspective Paper

CC08: Global Warming Perspective 1

An Assessment Paper on Global Warming was prepared for the 2008 Copenhagen Consensus by Gary W. Yohe, Richard S.J. Tol, Richard G. Richels, and Geoffrey J. Blanford.

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Perspective Paper

CC08: Global Warming Perspective 2

An Assessment Paper on Global Warming was prepared for the 2008 Copenhagen Consensus by Gary W. Yohe, Richard S.J. Tol, Richard G. Richels, and Geoffrey J. Blanford.

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Assessment Paper

CC04: Climate Change

An Assessment Paper on Climate Change was prepared for the 2004 Copenhagen Consensus by William Cline.

Robert Mendelsohn and Alan Manne wrote Perspective Papers in response.

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Perspective Paper

CC04: Climate Change Perspective 1

An Assessment Paper on Climate Change was prepared for the 2004 Copenhagen Consensus by William Cline.

Robert Mendelsohn and Alan Manne wrote Perspective Papers in response.

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Perspective Paper

CC04: Climate Change Perspective 2

An Assessment Paper on Climate Change was prepared for the 2004 Copenhagen Consensus by William Cline.

Robert Mendelsohn and Alan Manne wrote Perspective Papers in response.

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Assessment Paper

Fix The Climate: Climate Engineering

Climate engineering could offer an extremely cheap, fast solution to climate change, according to this comprehensive analysis of its costs and benefits.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Climate Engineering, Perspective 1

Dr. Anne Smith critiques the Analysis Paper by Dr.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Climate Engineering, Perspective 2

Dr. Roger Pielke Jr critiques the cost-benefit analysis of climate engineering of Dr. Bickel and Lane.

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Assessment Paper

Fix The Climate: Cutting Carbon Emissions

Climate economist Prof. Dr. Richard Tol examines the costs and benefits of cutting carbon under different scenarios.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Cutting Carbon Emissions, Perspective 1

Dr. Ir. Onno Kuik discusses the estimated benefit-cost ratios of carbon mitigation as a solution to climate change.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Cutting Carbon Emissions, Perspective 2

Professor Roberto Roson notes that Tol’s Assessment Paper is largely based on the FUND model and the results of a set of simulation exercises where a number of policy options are explored an

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Assessment Paper

Fix The Climate: Protecting and Planting Forests

Ecosystems store approximately 1 trillion tons of CO2 in the biomass of living trees and plants.

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Assessment Paper

Fix The Climate: Cutting Black Carbon Emissions

As much as 40% of current net warming is attributable to black carbon, point out Dr. W. David Montgomery, Robert E. Baron and Dr. Sugandha D. Tuladhar.

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Assessment Paper

Fix The Climate: Cutting Methane Emissions

Methane is a major anthropogenic greenhouse gas, second only to carbon dioxide in its impact on climate change.

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Assessment Paper

Fix The Climate: Adapting to Climate Change’s Effects

No matter what we do, we are unlikely to avoid all of the impacts of climate change. Adaptation is unavoidable.

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Assessment Paper

Fix The Climate: Researching Green Energy

This research paper considers a "technology-led approach" to mitigating CO2 emissions and stabilizing climateover the course of the 21st century.

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Assessment Paper

Fix The Climate: Sharing Green Technology

Technology transfer is the process of sharing skills, knowledge and technological breakthroughs among governments and other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments ar

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Assessment Paper

Advice for Policymakers

In 2009, the Copenhagen Consensus Center commissioned new research on the economics and feasibility of different responses to global warming, and then used Nobel Laureate economists to evaluate

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Adapting to Climate Change’s Effects, Perspective 1

Dr Samuel Fankhauser makes the case for adaptation as a core part of the global policy response to climate change.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Adapting to Climate Change’s Effects, Perspective 2

Dr Frank Jotzo notes that economic analysis of adaptation is subject to similar complications and limitations that beset quantitative economic analysis of climate change mitigation.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Cutting Black Carbon Emissions, Perspective

Dr. Milind Kandlikar, Conor C. O. Reynolds and Andrew P.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Protecting and Planting Forests, Perspective

Dr Sabine Fuss is in broad agreement with Prof. Brent Sohngen’s analysis of costs and benefits associated with the climate change mitigation options offered by forest carbon sequestration.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Sharing Green Technology

Professor David Popp notes that, while developed countries are beginning  to constrain growth in carbon emissions, emissions from developing countries are growing.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Cutting Methane Emissions, Perspective 1

Dr David Anthoff  concludes that a methane emission mitigation policy that follows the spending schedule suggested by the Copenhagen Consensus project does not pass a benefit-cost test.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Cutting Methane Emissions, Perspective 2

Dr David Johansson and Dr Fredrik Hedenus note that many sources of methane are non-point emission sources.

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Researching Green Energy, Perspective 1

Professor Gregory Nemet finds that the Assessment Paper clearly establishes the inexorable growth in demand for energy services over the current century, the magnitude of the technological revolut

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Perspective Paper

Fix The Climate: Researching Green Energy, Perspective 2

Dr Valentina Bosetti finds that R&D will be an essential part of any climate policy, independently of how stringent the optimal climate policy is believed to be; R&D policy alone will not

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Energy Security: An Impact Assessment of the EU Climate and Energy Package

By Christoph Böhringer & Andreas Keller. This paper looks at the EU's Climate and Energy Package and its targets, collectively known as 20-20-20.

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Defining, Measuring and Predicting Green Jobs

By Gürcan Gülen. The purpose of this paper is to assess the “state of science” in defining, measuring and predicting green jobs. Estimating economic impact, including creation of jobs, of any major investment scheme is difficult as multiplier effects can change over time and there are often unintended consequences.

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The Costs And Benefits Of EU Climate Policy For 2020

By Richard S.J. Tol. The European Union aims to limit its 2020 greenhouse gas emissions to 80% of its 1990 emissions. The European Commission has published an impact assessment, but not a cost-benefit analysis – an earlier cost-benefit analysis covered the eventual target but not the intermediate ones, let alone the details of policy implementation. This paper fills the gap, estimating the costs and the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% in a decade.

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Projects

A Scorecard for Humanity

A Scorecard for Humanity fits into the ongoing conversation between optimists and pessimists for the last half century. The central question has been: what is the state of the world? The results of our study have been published by Cambridge University Press under the book title How Much Have Global Problems Cost the World? A Scorecard from 1900 to 2050

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Copenhagen Consensus 2004

Copenhagen Consensus 2004 was the very first Copenhagen Consensus project. The basic idea was to improve prioritization of the numerous problems the world faces, by gathering some of the world's greatest economists to a meeting where some of the biggest challenges in the world would be assessed.

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Copenhagen Consensus 2012

In 2004 and 2008, the Copenhagen Consensus Center held two major projects that helped to shape overseas development spending and philanthropic decisions for years to come. Copenhagen 2012 was the latest iteration of our ongoing work to prioritize the best solutions.

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Post-2015 Consensus

In 2015, the UN's Millennium Development Goals are expiring and the international community will set new goals. The Post-2015 Consensus brings together the world’s top economists, NGOs, international agencies and businesses to identify the goals with the greatest benefit-to-cost ratio for the next development agenda.

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Copenhagen Consensus on Climate

Global warming is real; it is caused by man-made CO2 emissions, and we need to do something about it. But we don't need action that makes us feel good. We need action that actually does good.

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Denmark Consensus 2009

What are Denmark's biggest challenges? What areas concern Danes the most, and where do they want Danish politicians to focus first? What are the best solutions to their concerns, and where can we do the most good?

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Copenhagen Consensus 2008

Copenhagen Consensus 2008 took place 25-30 May in Copenhagen. Once again, our Expert Panel tackled the question, Imagine you had $75 billion to donate to worthwhile causes. What would you do, and where should we start? The Panel released a prioritized list recommending how best to tackle ten of the world's most pressing issues.

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