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Health

Humans have made great strides in healthcare. Advances are so rapid that for every month you live, medical science adds a week to your life expectancy. However, eighty percent of global deaths from heart disease, stroke, cancer, and other chronic diseases occur in low-income and middle-income countries. 

Summaries and download links to all our research papers on Health below.

 

Publications

Bangladesh Priorities: Pregnancy Supplements, Rose

Jonathan Rose, a research advisor with the South Asian Institute of Advanced Legal and Human Rights Studies, looks at how nutrition could also help pregnant women. Providing nutrients to the mother...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Nutrients and Micronutrients, Rose

Research by Jonathan Rose, a research advisor with the South Asian Institute of Advanced Legal and Human Rights Studies, examines programs to fight malnutrition by delivering nutrients and...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Tuberculosis, Vasssall

Tuberculosis (TB) kills 80,000 Bangladeshis each year, constituting about 9 percent of all deaths. Research by Anna Vasssall, a senior lecturer in health economics at the London School of Hygiene and...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Community Clinics, Huque

The research, by economist Rumana Huque of the University of Dhaka, considers treating diabetes and addressing smokeless tobacco consumption. Diabetes is associated with hypertension and related...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Child and Maternal Health, Khan and Ahmed

Even though Bangladesh has greatly reduced child and maternal deaths, the progress has been uneven. According to the World Bank, the mortality rates are nearly twice as high for infants and young...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Larsen

Even though 98 percent of Bangladeshis have access to either a well or piped water, 25 percent of households’ water sources contain arsenic levels that exceed the World Health Organization...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Sexual and Reproductive Health, Zaman

Early marriage is far from the only challenge Bangladeshi girls and women face. New research by Ahsan Zaman, an assistant economics professor at North South University, examines two other pressing...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Non-communicable Diseases, Koehlmoos et al.

Research written by four eminent American economists examines several strategies to combat non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. They find that the most cost-effective solutions are those aimed at...

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Assessment Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Assessment, Jha et al.

A variety of priorities have been proposed for 2030 as “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)” to replace the highly-influential 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDG). These proposed goals cover a wide range of development objectives and include SDG3, “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. Within this overarching health goal, many sub-goals have been proposed, some of which are realistic and others that are not.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Perspective - Non Communicable Diseases, Nugent

Summary The post-2015 target of reducing premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by one-third by 2030 is ambitious, but can come close to being reached with increased coverage –...

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Perspective - Malaria, Raykar and Laxminarayan

Despite a 42% decrease in global malaria mortality since 2000, the disease was estimated to have caused 627,000 deaths worldwide in 2012. 90% of these deaths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa and 77% were in children under five.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Perspective - Tuberculosis, Vassall

The economic case for investment in tuberculosis (TB) control is compelling; treatment is low cost and highly effective, and on average may give an individual in the middle of their productive life around 20 additional years of life, resulting in substantial economic and health return. But TB receives less than 4% of total development assistance for health.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Perspective, Fink

Eliminating all infant and child deaths is the ultimate long-term goal, but we need to look at more achievable targets for the relatively short period 2015-2030. The UN High Level Panel has suggested that this should be to aim for “… an upper threshold of 20 deaths per 1000 live births in all income quintiles of the population”. We argue that this target is not nearly ambitious enough for some middle income countries and rather unreasonable for some of the poorest country; instead of aiming for a uniform target, we argue that all countries should target a reduction of 70% in neonatal mortality between 2015 and 2030.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Perspective - HIV/AIDS, Geldsetzer et al

Thirty years after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was first identified, the HIV epidemic continues to cause large-scale human suffering and economic losses. Since featuring prominently in the MDGs, HIV has received unprecedented global political and financial commitment, being allocated 25% of all international assistance for health in 2011.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Perspective, Luca et al.

There is robust evidence that improved population health helps boost incomes. We argue that female-specific health interventions are a sound investment and, in particular, that vaccinating against human papilloma virus (HPV) in developing countries would reduce the substantial burden of cervical cancer. Further, we propose that diminishing the lifetime risk of cervical cancer and HPV-related disease by 40% (representing nearly 3 million deaths) through increased HPV vaccination coverage in developing countries is a worthy goal for inclusion in the post-2015 global development agenda.

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Policy Advice

Preliminary Benefit-Cost Assessment of Final OWG Targets

This report assesses the targets in the OWG’s Final Outcome Document from 19 July 2014. This builds upon the information presented in similar documents which the Copenhagen Consensus Center released...

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Policy Advice

Preliminary Benefit-Cost Assessment for 12th Session OWG Goals

The Copenhagen Consensus has updated our benefit-cost assessment of UN Post-2015 Millennium Development Goals for the 12th session of the Open Working Group. The Copenhagen Consensus will present...

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Policy Advice

Preliminary Benefit-Cost Assessment for 11th Session OWG Goals

Some of the world’s top economists have assessed the targets from the 11th session Open Working Group document into one of five categories, based on economic evidence: Phenomenal, Good, Fair, Poor and Uncertain.

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Assessment Paper

A Scorecard for Humanity: Human Health, Jamison Jha et al

One of the biggest improvements to the biggest number worldwide is in health. Life expectancy hardly changed before the late 18th century. Yet it is hard to overstate the magnitude of the improvement since 1900, from a life expectancy of 32 years to 69 now, to 76 in 2050.

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Assessment Paper

Third Copenhagen Consensus: Chronic Disease Assessment, Jha Nugent Verguet Bloom Hum

By Prabhat Jha, Rachel Nugent, Stéphane Verguet, David Bloom and Ryan Hum and released by the Copenhagen Consensus Center. The working paper used by the Expert Panel is available for download here,...

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Perspective Paper

Third Copenhagen Consensus: Chronic Disease Perspective, Suhrcke

Marc Suhrcke prepared one of the two Perspective Papers in response to the research of P rabhat Jha, Rachel Nugent, Stéphane Verguet, David Bloom and Ryan Hum on Chronic Disease.

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Perspective Paper

Third Copenhagen Consensus: Chronic Disease Perspective, Rushby

Julia Fox-Rushby prepared one of the two Perspective Papers in response to the research of Prabhat Jha, Rachel Nugent, Stéphane Verguet, David Bloom and Ryan Hum on Chronic Disease.

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Perspective Paper

Third Copenhagen Consensus: Infectious Disease Assessment, Jamison Jha et al

Dean Jamison, Prabhat Jha, Ramanan Laxminarayan, and Toby Ord identify five top priorities in the fight against infectious disease. The working paper used by the Expert Panel is available for...

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Perspective Paper

Third Copenhagen Consensus: Infectious Disease Perspective, Canning

David Canning prepared one of two Perspective Papers on Infectious Diseases as a response to the Assessment Paper by Dean Jamison, Prabhat Jha, Ramanan Laxminarayan and Toby Ord for the third...

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Perspective Paper

Third Copenhagen Consensus: Infectious Disease Perspective, Bärnighausen Bloom Humair

Till Bärnighausen, David Bloom and Salal Humair prepared one of two Perspective Papers on Infectious Diseases for the third Copenhagen Consensus.

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Assessment Paper

Rethink HIV: Preventing Sexual Transmission Assessment, Behrman Kohler

The working paper used by the Expert Panel is available for download here, the finalized paper has been published in the Rethink HIV book by Cambridge University Press. A new research paper looking...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Preventing Sexual Transmission Perspective, Walque

A Perspective Paper has been written by Damien de Walque, Senior Economist in the Development Research Group (Human Development and Public Services Team), World Bank discussing the research on...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Preventing Sexual Transmission Perspective, Whiteside

A Perspective Paper has been written on Preventing Sexual Transmission of HIV by Alan Whiteside, Professor, Economic Research Unit and Director of Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division,...

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Assessment Paper

Rethink HIV: Prevention of Non-Sexual Transmission of HIV Assessment, Bollinger

Lori A. Bollinger, the Vice President at the Futures Institute authored the Assessment Paper on the topic of Prevention of Non-sexual Infection for Rethink HIV. The working paper used by the Expert...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Prevention of the Non-Sexual Transmission of HIV Perspective, Baltussen

Rob Baltussen, Health economics specialist and coordinator of NICHE – the Nijmegen International Center for Health Systems Research and Education, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, and Jan...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Prevention of the Non-Sexual Transmission of HIV Perspective, Johri

By Mira Johri, Associate Professor, International Health Unit and Department of Health Administration, University of Montreal.

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Assessment Paper

Rethink HIV: Strengthening Health Systems Assessment, McGreevey et al

By William McGreevey, Associate Professor, Department of International Health at Georgetown University, with Carlos Avila and Mary Punchak, Georgetown University. The working paper used by the Expert...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Strengthening Health Systems, Perspective Bärnighausen et al

A Perspective Paper has been written by Till Bärnighausen, Assistant Professor of Global Health, Harvard School of Public Health; David E. Bloom, the Clarence James Gamble Professor of Economics and...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Strengthening Health Systems Perspective, Nattrass

A Perspective Paper has been written by Nicoli Nattrass, Professor, School of Economics at the University of Cape Town, on Strengthening Health Systems. Perspective Papers review the assumptions and...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Vaccine Research and Development Assessment, Jamison Hecht

Each Assessment Paper outlines the costs and benefits of at least three of the most promising responses, interventions, or investments to HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa within the respective category...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Vaccine Research and Development Perspective, Salomon

A Perspective Paper has been written by Joshua Salomon, Associate Professor of International Health, Department of Global Health and Population at Harvard University, wrote a Perspective Paper on...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Vaccine Research and Development Perspective, Forsythe

Steven Forsythe, Senior Economist at the Futures Institute wrote a Perspective Paper on the topic of Vaccine Research for the Rethink HIV project . Each Perspective Paper reviews the assumptions and...

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Assessment Paper

Rethink HIV: Treatment and Initiatives to Reduce the Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic Assessment, Over Garnett

Mead Over, Senior Fellow at the Center for Global Development and Geoffrey Garnett, Professor of Microparasite Epidemiology at the Imperial College London authored t he Assessment Paper on the topic...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Treatment and Initiatives to Reduce the Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic Perspective, Brent

A Perspective Paper on the topic of Treatment has been written by Robert J. Brent, Professor of Economics, Fordham University.

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Treatment and Initiatives to Reduce the Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic Perspective, Stover

A Perspective Paper has been written by John Stover, President at the Futures Institute. Each Perspective Paper reviews the assumptions and analyses made within the Assessment Paper. In this way, a...

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Assessment Paper

Rethink HIV: Social Policy Assessment, Watts Remme Vassall

The Assessment Paper on the topic of Social Policy is authored by Charlotte Watts, Professor of Social and Mathematical Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Michelle...

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Social Policy Perspective, Barnett

A Perspective Paper, Social Policy: Metaphors and Hope , has been written by Tony Barnett, Professor at the London School of Economics.

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Perspective Paper

Rethink HIV: Social Policy Perspective, Kazianga

Each Perspective Paper reviews the assumptions and analyses made within the Assessment Paper. In this way, a range of informed perspectives are provided on the topic. A Perspective Paper on Social...

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Best Practice Paper

The Economic Case for Expanding Vaccination

By Till Bärnighausen, David E. Bloom, David Canning, Abigail Friedman, Orin Levine, Jennifer O'Brien, Lois Privor-Dumm and Damian Walker While childhood vaccination programs, such as WHO’s Expanded...

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Best Practice Paper

Second Copenhagen Consensus: The Economic Case for Expanding Vaccination Coverage of Children Best Practice, Bloom et al

Part of the 2009 Best Practice Papers project, lead author David Bloom lays out the case for expanding childhood vaccination programs. He draws on his work and the published results of Copenhagen Consensus 2008 research.

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Assessment Paper

Denmark Consensus: Healthcare System

By Kjeld Møller Pedersen. The Danish healthcare system is in many ways better resourced then many other countries, but when looking ahead, there will be a significant pressure on resources in the future.

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Assessment Paper

Second Copenhagen Consensus: Diseases Assessment, Jamison Jha Bloom

Health conditions improved markedly throughout the world during most of the second half of the 20th century. Nonetheless major problems remain at the beginning of the 21st century.

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Perspective Paper

Second Copenhagen Consensus: Disease Perspective, Canning

David Canning wrote one of the two Perspective Papers on Disease for the second Copenhagen Consensus.

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Perspective Paper

Second Copenhagen Consensus: Disease Perspective, Laxminarayan

Ramanan Laxminarayan wrote Perspecitve Papers in response to the second Copenhagen Consensus paper by Dean T. Jamison, Prabhat Jha, and David Bloom.

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Assessment Paper

Copenhagen Consensus Latin America: Health

By Philip Musgrove. The overall challenge can be expressed in one sentence: People do not always get the health care they need. One way to decompose the challenge and look for ways to address it ascribes the problem to four causes: People don’t realize that they need care, they lack access to care, for financial, physical and cultural reasons, when care is accessible, it is provided inefficiently, and even when care is accessible, its quality is often substandard.

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Assessment Paper

Copenhagen Consensus: Communicable Disease Assessment, Mills

Over the second half of the twentieth century, the world has seen enormous health improvements. However, developing countries have benefited unequally from health gains, with many, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, continuing to experience high mortality.

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Perspective Paper

Copenhagen Consensus: Communicable Disease Perspective, Gaag

Jacques Van der Gaag prepared one of two Perspective Papers on Communicable Disease for the 2004 Copenhagen Consensus.

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Perspective Paper

Copenhagen Consensus: Communicable Disease Perspective, Evans

An Assessment Paper on Communicable Disease was prepared for the 2004 Copenhagen Consensus by Anne Mills. Jacques Van der Gaag and David B. Evans wrote Perspective Papers in response.

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Projects

A Scorecard for Humanity

A Scorecard for Humanity fits into the ongoing conversation between optimists and pessimists for the last half century. The central question has been: what is the state of the world? The results of our study have been published by Cambridge University Press under the book title How Much Have Global Problems Cost the World? A Scorecard from 1900 to 2050

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Copenhagen Consensus

The Copenhagen Consensus was our first project. The basic idea was to improve prioritization of the numerous problems the world faces, by gathering some of the world's greatest economists to a meeting where some of the biggest challenges in the world would be assessed.

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Copenhagen Consensus III

In 2004 and 2008, the Copenhagen Consensus Center held two major projects that helped to shape overseas development spending and philanthropic decisions for years to come. The third Copenhagen Consensus was the latest iteration of our ongoing work to prioritize the best solutions.

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Rethink HIV

The Rethink HIV project is a joint venture between the Rush Foundation and the Copenhagen Consensus Center. Rush asked the Copenhagen Consensus Center to commission a group of leading health academics to analyze policy choices and to identify the most effective ways to tackle the pandemic across sub-Saharan Africa. RethinkHIV identifies effective interventions in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

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Guide to Giving

Even the wealthiest government, business, or individual has limited resources. A dollar spent in one place cannot be spent elsewhere. We are often asked by individuals: how can I make personal donations in line with Copenhagen Consensus findings? This Guide provides an answer.

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Post-2015 Consensus

In 2015, the UN's Millennium Development Goals are expiring and the international community will set new goals. The Post-2015 Consensus brings together the world’s top economists, NGOs, international agencies and businesses to identify the goals with the greatest benefit-to-cost ratio for the next development agenda.

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Denmark Consensus 2009

What are Denmark's biggest challenges? What areas concern Danes the most, and where do they want Danish politicians to focus first? What are the best solutions to their concerns, and where can we do the most good?

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Copenhagen Consensus II

The second Copenhagen Consensus took place 25-30 May in Copenhagen. Once again, our Expert Panel tackled the question, Imagine you had $75 billion to donate to worthwhile causes. What would you do, and where should we start? The Panel released a prioritized list recommending how best to tackle ten of the world's most pressing issues.

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Copenhagen Consensus for Latin America

Copenhagen Consensus for Latin America and the Carribean took place in San José, Costa Rica, 22-25 October 2007 at the INCAE Business School, Alajuela, in cooperation with the Inter-American Development Bank

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Copenhagen Consensus Georgetown

Copenhagen Consensus 2006 followed a similar procedure to the first Copenhagen Consensus, drawing on the earlier exercise. Representatives had available to them the materials from the previous meeting, and over two days heard new presentations from acknowledged economists and UN experts for each of the ten challenge areas.

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